Are vitamin and mineral supplements meaningful?
   Fat-Soluble Vitamins
Vitamin A Vitamin D Vitamin E Vitamin K
   Water-Soluble  Vitamins:
Vitamin C Vitamin B1 Vitamin B12 Pantothenic Acid
Folic Acid Vitamin B2 Biotin
Vitamin B6 Niacin
Antioxidants Coenzyme Q10 Melatonin
                Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) - USA - Vitamins and Mineral nutrients
              Recommended Dietary Intake of Vitamins and Mineral Nutrients for Germany (DGE*)

Vitamin K

Vitamin K is important for the synthesis of protein and it is also used in the body to control blood coagulation.

Vitamin K: In-depth

Vitamin K is a collective term used for a number of fat-soluble substances. Vitamin K is essential for the formation of substances in the liver that control blood coagulation in other words it enhances blood coagulation. In addition to this, vitamin K is also vital for the synthesis of protein which is found in the blood, kidneys and in the bones.

There is also evidence that vitamin K plays an important role in the mineralization of bones which means it can help to prevent osteoporosis.

Bacteria that colonize the large intestine synthesise considerable amounts of the vitamin K 2. It is unclear whether this bacterial synthesis meets the overall human vitamin K requirements.

The storage capacity of the organs is only 0.4 mg which means that the vitamin K storage would be empty after two weeks if the body did not get a sufficient supply of the vitamin.

Vitamin K is not affected by heat and oxygen but it is sensitive to light.

Vitamin K: Requirement, deficiency, oversupply

Recommended intake of vitamin K according to the DGE*




19 - 25

70 µg

60 µg

25 - 51

70 µg

60 µg

51 - 65

80 µg

65 µg

over 65

80 µg

65 µg

*Deutsche Gesellschaft für Ernährung - a German Nutrition Society

Most healthy people who are on a healthy diet do not have to worry about getting a vitamin K deficiency. However, a deficiency can occur if the body is unable to metabolise fats properly.

Vitamin K deficiency symptoms can be caused by certain gastrointestinal illnesses as well as the long-term intake of certain medication (antibiotics, anticonvulsants or salicylates). Excessive bleeding (impaired blood coagulation) is an indication for a vitamin K deficiency.

High doses of vitamin K do not lead to toxicity in healthy people.


Vitamin K in Food:

Foods rich in vitamin K 1 are green leafy vegetables and lettuce. Other vitamin K rich foods include whole wheat products, meat, milk, eggs, fruit and other vegetables.

Vitamin K in 100 g food:

Curly kale: 817 µg
Chicken heart: 720 µg
Spinach: 335 µg
Brussels sprouts: 275 µg
Cauliflower: 167 µg
Chick peas: 164 µg
Broccoli: 154 µg
Wheat germs: 131 µg
Butterhead lettuce: 130 µg
Lentils: 123 µg
Chicken liver: 80 µg
Butter: 60 µg
Corn oil: 60 µg
Oats: 63 µg
Farmer's cheese 40%: 50 µg
Farmer's cheese 20%: 23 µg
Chicken egg: 47.5 µg
Corn: 40 µg

Units: 1,000,000 µg = 1 g

Vitamin K is a stable vitamin and is minimally susceptible to damage by heat and oxygen. This means that vitamin losses from cooking are relatively minimal. On the other hand vitamin K is easily destroyed by daylight.


The Complete Book of Food Counts, 9th Edition: The Book That Counts It All

Earl Mindell's New Vitamin Bible,
Earl Mindell, Hester Mundis

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