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Fractures: Causes, Symptoms, Risks, First Aid


A fracture is a break in the bone and is caused by a direct or indirect force.

There are two different types of fractures:

  • Closed fracture = fracture without a visible wound
  • Open fracture = fracture with a visible wound in the area of the fracture.

Fractures are common with the following types of sport:

Skiing, horse riding, gymnastics and team sports such as football


  • pain
  • swelling
  • relieving posture
  • imitation of movement or inability to move, or also abnormal mobility
  • Sometimes one can see an unnatural position or a bend in the extremities. Deformities, angulation (abnormal positioning of the limbs) Sometimes one can see that the extremities are in an unnatural position
  • grinding or grating sounds
  • wounds


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  • internal an external bleeding
  • shock caused by loss of blood and pain
  • infections in open fractures
  • injured nerves and blood vessels

First Aid

  • The affected part of the body should not be moved, as the sharp ends of the broken bone could cause other injuries.
  • Cover up open fractures with sterile bandages.
  • Rest the fractured limb on a well cushioned surface.
  • If there are any signs of shock, place the injured person in the shock position (with legs up)
  • Recovery only takes place once removed from direct danger.
  • Remain calm! Stay with the injured person and calm him/her down. Regularly check consciousness, breathing and pulse.
  • Remove restricting clothing!
  • Cold packs may be used to help reduce pain and swelling on closed fractures.
  • Call the emergency services!


The Athlete's Book of Home Remedies: 1,001 Doctor-Approved Health Fixes and Injury-Prevention Secrets for a Leaner, Fitter, More Athletic Body!, Jordan Metzl, Mike Zimmerman

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